ABSTRACT: Simulation techniques in the anatomy curriculum: review of literature
Modern medical education faces a problem of combining the latest technology, procedures and information with classic teaching methods. Simulation is a technique, which replaces or amplifies doctor-patient experiences in controlled conditions and therefore evokes or replicates substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive manner. The basic course of anatomy in medical education could be recognised as the best example of implementing new educational techniques such as simulation, into the traditional medical curriculum. The PubMed database was searched using specific key words. Finally 72 articles were accepted and were divided into 3 basic categories of teaching methods: Category 1 – cadaveric dissection, Category 2 – simulator based education and Category 3 – other. A state of the art anatomical curriculum offers numerous possibilities and solutions including the oldest like cadaveric dissection and newest like simulators. Different simulation techniques are used with different intensity; however cadaveric dissection is still the most popular method. The second most frequent method is simulation-based training, in which North America is the leading country. The identification of anatomical structures during virtual surgical procedures or laparoscopic robotic procedures can be integrated into the traditional anatomy course. New technologies are supportive and beneficial in anatomy teaching however each excitement of new technologies sometimes should be tempered and evaluated for its usefulness in making the learning process constructive for students and their future practice.