MANUSCRIPT: Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice in Medical Education – a Systematic Review
Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice (RCDP) is a novel simulation-based education model that is currently attracting interest, implementation, exploration and research in medical education. In RCDP, learners rapidly cycle between deliberate practice and directed feedback within the simulation scenario until mastery is achieved. The objective of this systematic review is to examine the literature and summarize the existing knowledge on RCDP in simulation-based medical education. Fifteen resources met inclusion criteria; they were diverse and heterogeneous, such that we did not perform a quantitative synthesis or meta-analysis but rather a narrative review on RCDP. All resources described RCDP in a similar manner. Common RCDP implementation strategies included: splitting simulation cases into segments, micro debriefing in the form of ‘pause, debrief, rewind and try again’ and providing progressively more challenging scenarios. Variable outcome measures were used by the studies including qualitative assessments, scoring tools, procedural assessment using checklists or video review, time to active skills and clinical reports. Results were limited and inconsistent. There is an absence of data on retention after RCDP teaching, on RCDP, with learners from specialties other than pediatrics, on RCDP for adult resuscitation scenarios and if RCDP teaching translates into practice change in the clinical realm. We have identified important avenues for future research on RCDP.