MANUSCRIPT: A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning: Implications for Design Principles
In multimedia learning the learner engages in three important cognitive processes. The first cognitive progress, selecting, is applied to incoming verbal information to yield a text base and is applied to incoming visual information to yield an image base. The second cognitive process, organizing, is applied to the word base to create a verbally-based model of the to-be explained system and is applied to the image base to create a visually-based model of the to be- explained system. Finally, the third process, integrating, occurs when the learner builds connections between corresponding events (or states or parts) in the verbally-based model and the visually-based model. The model is explained more fully in Mayer (1997), and has generated a series of experiments yielding five major principles of how to use multimedia to help students understand a scientific explanation. Each principle of multimedia design is subject to further research.