ABSTRACT: The current and future state of pharmacogenomics medical education in the USA.
Healthcare professionals (e.g., physicians, physician assistants, pharmacists, nurses and genetic counselors) believe pharmacogenomics (PGx) is essential to personalized medicine; however, they still lack confidence prescribing, dosing, interacting with other healthcare professionals and counseling patients with regard to PGx. This is due to the inadequate incorporation of PGx content into professional curricula. Compared with other health professions, Doctor of Pharmacy programs have integrated more PGx content. Unlike other healthcare professionals, pharmacists have extensive training in pharmacology, drug selection, drug dosage, drug-drug interactions and are uniquely accessible to patients. We suggest pharmacists are the best poised to facilitate incorporating PGx into therapeutic decision-making. Based on our experience as undergraduate and pharmacy PGx educators, we further reflect on our experience educating future healthcare professionals on PGx.